How are the different sherries made

I will start by explaining the production of the most common sherry, a dry sherry produced with the Palomino grape base wine. To make it simple, the way the wine is aged, “biological” or “oxidative”, will depend on the juice. If it is the juice of the first press or if it comes from the second press.

Fundador flor amontillado palo cortado fino oloroso jerez sherry Jerez de la frontera solera village Cadiz Explore la Tierra


It is called biological ageing because it is aged in contact with the “flor”, which means flower in Spanish. “flor” is a layer of yeast that feeds on the glicerin of the base wine and stays at the top, to prevent the wine coming into contact with the oxygen. To create this layer it has to be fortified with Brandy to around 15%, as the yeast dies above this.

Within this process different types of sherry can be produced such as:


The base wine of the first press is fortified to 15-17% and is always under the “flor” during the ageing process for minimum 2 years. It can’t be made in Sanlúcar de Barrameda.


Same style as the Fino, but it must be aged in Sanlúcar de Barrameda, where it is aged under marine conditions, like salty winds, affecting the tasting notes of the wine. Interestingly, It usually also has a lighter colour than a Fino.

flor fino vino jerez sherry Jerez de la frontera solera village Cadiz Explore la Tierra

Palo cortado:

One of the rarest and best wines of the world. It is the pride and joy of the winemaker as years ago it had to “appear” instead of being “made”. It starts in the same way as the Fino and Manzanilla. Suddenly, the layer of flor starts to die and it starts to suffer oxidative ageing. Nowadays some winemaker in the wine cellar creates it by: Breaking the “flor”; Joining two “criaderas” a fino/manzanilla and an oloroso; Or by adding fino/manzanilla to a “criadera” that has palo cortado. Then add  more brandy increasing the alcohol to >17%, killing the flor completely. We know that the process is similar to the amontillado, but it undergoes more oxidation ageing. Therefore, Palo cortado is closer to the Oloroso than to the Amontilllado in texture but it has partly, the nose of an amontillado.


Same style as the Fino and Manzanillaa. However it can be done with the first or second second press. After several years, when it reaches the line of barrels on top of the solera. The winemaker will add more brandy increasing the alcohol to >17%, killing the flor completely. After it undergoes oxidative ageing.

The best amontillados are formed after 9-10 years, when the flor dies naturally. The rest of the ageing time, it undergoes oxidative ageing. Therefore the process is similar to the Palo cortado, but with less oxidation compared to the Palo cortado.


By adding brandy over >17% to the base wine of second press juice, the yeast dies and the ageing process starts changing colour to a dark brown and it is aged for a minimum of two years.


As they oxidise there is more evaporation, therefore concentrating more alcohol, this is why you will find bottles of Oloroso higher in alcohol.


Pedro Ximénez (PX):

PX grapes are sun-dried to increase the density of sugar and this is then partially fermented and then fortified with Brandy to ≥15% and aged by oxidation. Pedro Ximénez is considered the sweetest wine of the world together with the Australian Rutherglen Muscat with over 300g/l of residual sugar. Reaching up to 500g/l!

Moscatel de alejandria:

The wine is made in a similar way to PX, and sometimes is blended together, but using Moscatel of Alexandria grapes.


Pale Cream sherry:

Fino or Manzanilla sherry is mixed with a sweet wine if it is an expensive bottle, if not it can also be mixed with just grape juice made with the sweet grapes.

Medium sherry:

Mix Amontillado or Oloroso with a sweet sherry or wine and then age it for a bit longer together. The residual sugar is 5-115g/l.

Cream sherry:

Mix Oloroso with a sweet sherry or wine and then age it for a bit longer together. The residual sugar is >115g/l.

Bristol cream sherry:

Mix of different dry sherries like Fino sherry, Amontillado sherry, Oloroso sherry with sweet PX sherry.

Bristol cream pedro ximenez oloroso amontillado cream vino jerez sherry Jerez de la frontera solera village Cadiz Explore la Tierra

Medium amontillado oloroso PX 30 years VORS Very rare old sherry vino jerez sherry Jerez de la frontera solera village Cadiz Explore la TierraWe also have to think that the longer the sherry stays in the barrels, the more complexity and density there will be. This is due to evaporation through the pores of the barrels, and this is why the price increases so much. There is a name for those old sherries, Very Old Rare Sherries (VORS), they must be aged for over 30 years!!




If you are looking for what gourmet food in Andalusia to try, traditional and Sherry experiences keep reading.

Sherry tours

Are you visiting Cadiz and you would you like to learn more about Sherry and immerse yourself in the local culture and traditions? If you want to learn and experience it with the company of a local guide and turn your visit to Cadiz into an exciting gastronomic adventure, book with us. Sherry love is very contagious, surely you will also become one!

If you have your own transport we can accompany you while learning about Sherry. Enjoy the best Sherry bodega tours, local culture and traditions and the local gastronomy. In case you do not have a transport we can arrange transport, restaurant and the rest of your trip for you.

If you would like to learn all about Jerez-Sherry-Xeres D.O. then join us for our Ultimate Sherry Tasting tour. We can design a private tour just for you and your family.

If you are staying in Vejer de la Frontera or within Cadiz province we can organize a private Sherry tasting with gourmet local food of Andalusia for your group. We will go to your place and do a Sherry or Andalusian wine tasting for you privately. We can focus on premium Sherries; VORS and premium Sherries; or Andalusian wines in case you do not like Sherry.

If you are thinking to travel to other parts of Cadiz, we are based in Vejer de la Frontera. Officially, Vejer is one of the most beautiful villages of Spain, you should come and meet us!

Food and cultural tours

If you want to learn more about Vejer de la Frontera, its traditions and gastronomy book our Sherry&Tapas tour! Learn about sherry, wine tastings, and how to pair it with gourmet traditional food from the area. Taste different types of Sherry and local food like bluefin tuna, bull meat, salmorejo, eggplant with honey and pinenuts, etc. The tour includes 5 tapas and 5 wine/Sherries .

We also have a tour that focuses on Bluefin tuna. You will learn the history of Bluefin tuna in the area since Phoenician times by going in a private boat ride to visit the almadraba; visit a local food market; and taste different parts of bluefin tuna in all ways, salt-dried, grilled, raw.

If you would like to visit other beautiful white villages like Vejer, we can do a tour of the white villages in Cadiz province. On the other hand we can mix a visit to a beautiful white village wit a visit to an olive oil mill. Or you can choose to do a private tour that we can design especially for you and recommend places to visit based on your interests. Come and join Explore la Tierra in Vejer de la Frontera, Cadiz, Spain!

Our last addition is our become an artisan for one day tour. Make your own cheese and your own leather souvenir in Ubrique and enjoy its great history and panoramic views. This white village is famous worldwide for its importance for the leather international companies.

If you have any ideas and suggestions, please do not hesitate to write us back at our email, info@explorelatierra.com. Before contacting us please read first Privacy Policy. We will take your new recommendations into consideration. If you want to keep reading other blogs hit the big blue button.

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